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Surrogacy conflicts: why do they exist?

Surrogacy is not a totally regulated field of Law. There are a lot of gaps in legislation, either in the countries, where surrogacy is allowed or banned. Referring to the surrogacy field, we need to remember that it is quite a young method of infertility treatment, for example gestational surrogacy is used from the end of 20TH century only.

Why legal frameworks of Surrogacy are uncertain?

Why it is not regulated still? Why couples face the problem when their surrogacy babies have unclear legal status and for what your own countries put these babies into “legal limbo”?

To answer these questions we need to understand what Law Regulation is in general. The system of legal rules was created in order to protect the rights and properties of the different actors of a society in which private relations of production developed and as a response to rising inequalities among the population. These inequalities arose first of all because of cultural and economic development of the society, as people had already goods, properties and models of behavior that they wanted to maintain or protect. We should remember, that any legal regulation is always based on the moral foundations of society, because people (creators of rules) always need to be sure what exactly they are going to protect. Morality is a system of principles for a person’s deeply personal attitude to the world from the point of view of his justice. And as long as society has not yet decided whether surrogacy is good or not, a noble goal or women’s exploitation or even a rebellion against God, the legal framework will not come to its balance and will continue to be uncertain.

Moral values battle

Nowadays, we are witnessing some kind of competition between governments, social and healthcare organizations in defence of the preeminence of their own moral values. And we don’t know in reality who will win in the end: will surrogacy be considered as a way of treatment, as we understand it, or will it be considered as violation of human rights? But we do know precisely that infertility problems are rapidly increasing every year and nothing can stop desperate couples who cannot have a baby to seek solutions for achieving the happiness of parenthood. We know for sure, that sometimes Surrogacy motherhood is the only one way for infertile couples to get a baby, and for Surrogate mothers to improve their financial situation.

And if God gives us an opportunity to get two happy families instead of two unhappy, and to help new people to come to our World, why do we need to doubt?

We already accept tissues and cells donation and transplantation of organs in our legal systems. During the surrogacy process, surrogate mother doesn’t lose any part of her body. We use surrogacy just because a human organism cannot be developed in other conditions than in a woman’s womb. Science has not found the way to develop a human being in another way yet. On the other hand, Surrogacy can be a morally tough process for a surrogate mother, as she usually has no legal filial rights to the child she carries. That’s why the compensation for her help is not something terrible, as usually presented in media, but it’s a kind of financial support that Intended Parents are willing to do for the Surrogate mother family for her “carry and delivery in time” services.

Delivery in time

The legal nature of Surrogacy agreement is quite interesting and have elements of a contract to supply services for payment. The Surrogate mother doesn’t sell her body or a child, as the embryo to become the future child is made in laboratory conditions from genetic material of the Intended Parents and sometimes a Donor. The Surrogate mother sells her services of “baby delivery”, the only one thing is that her delivery is not in a distance, but in a time, as she needs to create a certain conditions for baby’s development and take care of him or her during the whole pregnancy until the moment of birth.

Yellow surrogacy journalism

Certain tabloids christened companies working in the Surrogacy field as “baby factories” and Surrogate mothers as “slaves”. We have worked in the surrogacy field for many years and we cannot tell that the Surrogate mothers we work with are very poor or dying of a hunger. They all are contemporary women with their own goals and aspirations and they want to help their children to get better education or life conditions and to help infertile couple to feel the happiness of parenthood. They all have their own children and can always share their love with them after the surrogacy program ends.

Another thing is that we cannot compare a compensation for a Surrogate with a new human’s life creation. We should consider it as a financial support, a help from the Intended Parents or a reasonable compensation for her time and medical care undergone, but not for the baby. A nascent human life is something invaluable by definition.

How much does your child worth to you?

Ask any mother on the Earth, she would never give you the price tag. At the same time, we are very proud that in our daily work we are involved in the most incredible miracle on the Earth – the creation of life.

Legal basis of Children’s rights

The Convention on the Rights of the Child – recognized all over the world-, dated 20th of November, 1989, in par.2 article 2 says: “States Parties shall take all appropriate measures to ensure that the child is protected against all forms of discrimination or punishment on the basis of the status, activities, expressed opinions, or beliefs of the child’s parents, legal guardians, or family members”. Article 8 of the same Convention prescribes that “States Parties undertake to respect the right of the child to preserve his or her identity, including nationality, name and family relations as recognized by law without unlawful interference. Where a child is illegally deprived of some or all of the elements of his or her identity, States Parties shall provide appropriate assistance and protection, with a view to re-establishing speedily his or her identity”.

Never give up!

Despite this Convention’s existence, the term “surrogacy baby” is still used for some reason, as if it would really have some relevance in what way this baby came to our World. We still are fighting side-by-side with New Parents for their genetically related babies’ rights in the Consulates, as not every government is helpful in issuing the citizenship of the newborn babies who were born via surrogacy. Nevertheless we still believe that the situation will change, it has to change and in the mean time we keep fighting the good fight.

We want to help you to achieve the main dream of your life. Contact us today to know more about the Surrogacy programs of Pons Medical Group or book a consultation with one of our specialists totally free of charge.

Male infertility

The reproductive system is a complex mechanism, any detail of which may be impaired due to various pathologies. According to the U.S. National Institutes of Health, near 50% of male infertility causes cannot be determined. Here we will describe a few of the known causes to increase your awareness and your chances to overcome it.

Hormonal disregulation

          Both hormonal and neuronal signals are controlling our internal organs: they can either stimulate or suppress the secretion of glands, to change the blood flow through it or even regulate the development of organs in the fetal period. The same applies to the reproductive system and glands. In both cases, with congenital or acquired hormonal disbalance, it may lead to male infertility. Let’s go to the more details.

Important hormones in reproductive system

          Although a lot of hormones have a function in the reproductive system, we can highlight three of them:

  • Testosterone. It produced in testicles, in cells known as Leydig cells;
  • Luteinizing hormone. It produced in the pituitary gland and regulates Leydig cells to produce testosterone;
  • Follicle-stimulating hormone is also produced in the pituitary gland, its’ function is to stimulate another type of cells, Sertoli cells, to initiate the spermatozoa maturation.

Reasons of hormonal disbalance

          The male infertility problems may appear at any step.

For example, due to the previous trauma or infection of a producing gland, the synthesis of these hormones may become reduced, which will be not enough for normal spermatozoa production. Tumors may also impair this process.

Another case if, due to a specific mutation, there is a loss of sensitivity of target cells to these hormones. They are extremely rare, however, in this case, a patient may require genetic counseling.

There are also cases of congenital underdevelopment of these glands, which will also impair their functioning.

To see the exact reason, your fertility specialist may order several tests. For example, blood biochemistry to evaluate the concentration of hormones, spermogram to see the spermatozoa morphology and activity, and some additional ones.

In some cases, it is possible to compensate the hormonal dysregulation with replacement therapy, but in other cases, the changes may be irreversible and IVF may the only choice.

Immune infertility

Our immune system has a tolerance feature: during the early development, it recognizes the own body antigens to prevent an autoregression. Sometimes this system becomes impaired, this may lead to autoimmune diseases.

There is an important moment: as first spermatozoa become produced only in puberty, when the immune system is already mature, there is no chance to develop a tolerance to the cellular components of it. The immunity recognizes it as foreign antigens and starts to attack it.

This happens in the case, if, for some reasons (trauma, tumor, inflammation), the components of testicular tissues enter the bloodstream.

If a doctor will suspect it, the testing for antispermal antibodies may be required. In the case of positive analysis, a doctor will consider treatment options, including IVF if relevant.

Sexually transmitted diseases

There are some infections, which may make an impact on the reproductive function. For example, chlamydiosis, gonorrhea, genital herpes, trichomoniasis, etc. Some of them are associated with an acute beginning and severe symptoms, while chronical course without manifestation is the characteristic of others.

The problem is, these pathogens can develop an infectious inflammation in reproductive organs, which may impair spermatogenesis, hormonal production, normal functioning, and sperm passage.

Sometimes it is challenging to diagnose and treat it because of an asymptomatic course and treatment resistance of microorganisms, however, the prognosis may be good in case of strick keeping to the doctors’ recommendations.

          There are a lot of causes why male infertility may origin, however, with modern diagnostical and treatment approaches, there are great chances to become a parent despite it. In case, if your fertility specialist will prescribe you an IVF treatment, we will provide you with the best possible options.

Read more about female infertility in our blog!

Causes of female infertility

Nowadays problems with having babies increase enormously. Sometimes causes of female infertility are not so evident, and woman starts to ask herself “Why I cannot become pregnant?”. Today we will talk about some reasons of female infertility and timely response to it.

What is an infertility?

According to World Health Organization, infertility is an inability of a sexually active, non-contracepting couple to achieve pregnancy in one year. There is a large number of possible causes of infertility and they may be divided into four general groups: female-related causes, male-related causes, combined causes and idiopathic or unexplained causes. In this article we are going to list some female diseases which may cause infertility.

Cause 1: Polycyctic ovary syndrome

Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a condition in which ovaries and, in some cases, adrenal glands produce more androgens than normal. Even though the name suggests that the ovaries are the central organs of the disease, cysts are just a symptom but not a cause of the disease. Some symptoms of PCOS will persist even if both ovaries are removed; the disease can appear even if cysts are absent.

The cause of PCOS is not fully known. There does appear to be a genetic connection. Besides, high insulin level also increases a woman’s risk of developing PCOS.


Some of the symptoms of PCOS include irregular menstrual cycle, acne, excess facial and body hair, obesity, alopecia, and infertility.

In 2003, a consensus workshop organized by European Society of Human Reproduction and Embryology and American Society for Reproductive Medicine has developed so-called “Rotterdam criteria of PCOS”. Most of modern guidelines rely on them.

They include:

  1. oligoovulation and/or anovulation
  2. excess androgen activity
  3. polycystic ovaries (by gynecologic ultrasound)

 PCOS is considered to be present if any 2 out of 3 criteria are met, in the absence of other entities that might cause these findings.

How to cure PCOS?

There is no cure for PCOS, but you can manage the symptoms of it. You and your doctor will work on a treatment plan based on your symptoms, your plans for having children, and your risk of long-term health problems such as diabetes, obesity and heart disease. Many women require a combination of treatments, including hormonal birth control, anti-androgen medicine and medications which lower the concentration of glucose in blood via different mechanisms.

IVF may be also an effective option if medicine does not work. Compared to medicine alone, IVF has higher pregnancy rates and better control over your risk of having twins and triplets.

 Surgery is also an option if the other options are not effective. The cortex of ovaries is thickened in women with PCOS and thought to play a role in preventing ovulation. Ovarian drilling is a surgery in which the doctor makes a few holes in the surface of your ovary using a laser or a fine needle heated with electricity. Surgery usually restores ovulation, but only for 6 to 8 months.

Cause 2: Sexually transmitted diseases

Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) are infections that are passed from one person to another through sexual contact. The causes of STDs are bacteria, parasites, yeast, and viruses. There are more than 20 types of STDs, including chlamydiosis, gonorrhea, HIV/AIDS, genital herpes, syphilis, trichomoniasis, etc.


 Most of STDs have typical signs and symptoms which lead a woman to the doctor. However, some of them, such as chlamydiosis and gonorrhea, may be totally asymptomatic and the woman may learn about them only when she tries to conceive.

Untreated gonorrhea and chlamydia in women can lead to pelvic inflammatory disease, which might cause scarring that blocks the fallopian tubes and does not allow the egg to get fertilized.


When diagnosed in time, most of the STDs are treated with antibiotics. However, taking in account that some of them are “silent”, prophylactics remains the best option  for STDs. Practicing safer sex can reduce your risk of getting STDs. Male condom is the only secure option in this case. Besides, it is recommended to screen all sexually active women 25 and younger every year for STDs. Women older than 25 who have multiple sex partners or a new sex partner should also be screened every year. Pregnant women must also pass a screening.

There are numerous surgical techniques which are aiming to unblock the tubes. However, often they are not effective and IVF remains the only option for the patient with infertility.

There are a lot of other causes of female infertility, however, with modern diagnostic and treatment approaches, the chances to become parents are high. In a case if your fertility specialist will prescribe you an IVF treatment and our Team will provide you with the best possible options.

Ask today for a free skype-consultation if you have any other questions, related to female infertility!

female infertility