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Male infertility

The reproductive system is a complex mechanism, any detail of which may be impaired due to various pathologies. According to the U.S. National Institutes of Health, near 50% of male infertility causes cannot be determined. Here we will describe a few of the known causes to increase your awareness and your chances to overcome it.

Hormonal disregulation

          Both hormonal and neuronal signals are controlling our internal organs: they can either stimulate or suppress the secretion of glands, to change the blood flow through it or even regulate the development of organs in the fetal period. The same applies to the reproductive system and glands. In both cases, with congenital or acquired hormonal disbalance, it may lead to male infertility. Let’s go to the more details.

Important hormones in reproductive system

          Although a lot of hormones have a function in the reproductive system, we can highlight three of them:

  • Testosterone. It produced in testicles, in cells known as Leydig cells;
  • Luteinizing hormone. It produced in the pituitary gland and regulates Leydig cells to produce testosterone;
  • Follicle-stimulating hormone is also produced in the pituitary gland, its’ function is to stimulate another type of cells, Sertoli cells, to initiate the spermatozoa maturation.

Reasons of hormonal disbalance

          The male infertility problems may appear at any step.

For example, due to the previous trauma or infection of a producing gland, the synthesis of these hormones may become reduced, which will be not enough for normal spermatozoa production. Tumors may also impair this process.

Another case if, due to a specific mutation, there is a loss of sensitivity of target cells to these hormones. They are extremely rare, however, in this case, a patient may require genetic counseling.

There are also cases of congenital underdevelopment of these glands, which will also impair their functioning.

To see the exact reason, your fertility specialist may order several tests. For example, blood biochemistry to evaluate the concentration of hormones, spermogram to see the spermatozoa morphology and activity, and some additional ones.

In some cases, it is possible to compensate the hormonal dysregulation with replacement therapy, but in other cases, the changes may be irreversible and IVF may the only choice.

Immune infertility

Our immune system has a tolerance feature: during the early development, it recognizes the own body antigens to prevent an autoregression. Sometimes this system becomes impaired, this may lead to autoimmune diseases.

There is an important moment: as first spermatozoa become produced only in puberty, when the immune system is already mature, there is no chance to develop a tolerance to the cellular components of it. The immunity recognizes it as foreign antigens and starts to attack it.

This happens in the case, if, for some reasons (trauma, tumor, inflammation), the components of testicular tissues enter the bloodstream.

If a doctor will suspect it, the testing for antispermal antibodies may be required. In the case of positive analysis, a doctor will consider treatment options, including IVF if relevant.

Sexually transmitted diseases

There are some infections, which may make an impact on the reproductive function. For example, chlamydiosis, gonorrhea, genital herpes, trichomoniasis, etc. Some of them are associated with an acute beginning and severe symptoms, while chronical course without manifestation is the characteristic of others.

The problem is, these pathogens can develop an infectious inflammation in reproductive organs, which may impair spermatogenesis, hormonal production, normal functioning, and sperm passage.

Sometimes it is challenging to diagnose and treat it because of an asymptomatic course and treatment resistance of microorganisms, however, the prognosis may be good in case of strick keeping to the doctors’ recommendations.

          There are a lot of causes why male infertility may origin, however, with modern diagnostical and treatment approaches, there are great chances to become a parent despite it. In case, if your fertility specialist will prescribe you an IVF treatment, we will provide you with the best possible options.

Read more about female infertility in our blog!

Causes of female infertility

Nowadays problems with having babies increase enormously. Sometimes causes of female infertility are not so evident, and woman starts to ask herself “Why I cannot become pregnant?”. Today we will talk about some reasons of female infertility and timely response to it.

What is an infertility?

According to World Health Organization, infertility is an inability of a sexually active, non-contracepting couple to achieve pregnancy in one year. There is a large number of possible causes of infertility and they may be divided into four general groups: female-related causes, male-related causes, combined causes and idiopathic or unexplained causes. In this article we are going to list some female diseases which may cause infertility.

Cause 1: Polycyctic ovary syndrome

Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a condition in which ovaries and, in some cases, adrenal glands produce more androgens than normal. Even though the name suggests that the ovaries are the central organs of the disease, cysts are just a symptom but not a cause of the disease. Some symptoms of PCOS will persist even if both ovaries are removed; the disease can appear even if cysts are absent.

The cause of PCOS is not fully known. There does appear to be a genetic connection. Besides, high insulin level also increases a woman’s risk of developing PCOS.

Symptoms

Some of the symptoms of PCOS include irregular menstrual cycle, acne, excess facial and body hair, obesity, alopecia, and infertility.

In 2003, a consensus workshop organized by European Society of Human Reproduction and Embryology and American Society for Reproductive Medicine has developed so-called “Rotterdam criteria of PCOS”. Most of modern guidelines rely on them.

They include:

  1. oligoovulation and/or anovulation
  2. excess androgen activity
  3. polycystic ovaries (by gynecologic ultrasound)

 PCOS is considered to be present if any 2 out of 3 criteria are met, in the absence of other entities that might cause these findings.

How to cure PCOS?

There is no cure for PCOS, but you can manage the symptoms of it. You and your doctor will work on a treatment plan based on your symptoms, your plans for having children, and your risk of long-term health problems such as diabetes, obesity and heart disease. Many women require a combination of treatments, including hormonal birth control, anti-androgen medicine and medications which lower the concentration of glucose in blood via different mechanisms.

IVF may be also an effective option if medicine does not work. Compared to medicine alone, IVF has higher pregnancy rates and better control over your risk of having twins and triplets.

 Surgery is also an option if the other options are not effective. The cortex of ovaries is thickened in women with PCOS and thought to play a role in preventing ovulation. Ovarian drilling is a surgery in which the doctor makes a few holes in the surface of your ovary using a laser or a fine needle heated with electricity. Surgery usually restores ovulation, but only for 6 to 8 months.

Cause 2: Sexually transmitted diseases

Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) are infections that are passed from one person to another through sexual contact. The causes of STDs are bacteria, parasites, yeast, and viruses. There are more than 20 types of STDs, including chlamydiosis, gonorrhea, HIV/AIDS, genital herpes, syphilis, trichomoniasis, etc.

Symptoms

 Most of STDs have typical signs and symptoms which lead a woman to the doctor. However, some of them, such as chlamydiosis and gonorrhea, may be totally asymptomatic and the woman may learn about them only when she tries to conceive.

Untreated gonorrhea and chlamydia in women can lead to pelvic inflammatory disease, which might cause scarring that blocks the fallopian tubes and does not allow the egg to get fertilized.

Treatment

When diagnosed in time, most of the STDs are treated with antibiotics. However, taking in account that some of them are “silent”, prophylactics remains the best option  for STDs. Practicing safer sex can reduce your risk of getting STDs. Male condom is the only secure option in this case. Besides, it is recommended to screen all sexually active women 25 and younger every year for STDs. Women older than 25 who have multiple sex partners or a new sex partner should also be screened every year. Pregnant women must also pass a screening.

There are numerous surgical techniques which are aiming to unblock the tubes. However, often they are not effective and IVF remains the only option for the patient with infertility.

There are a lot of other causes of female infertility, however, with modern diagnostic and treatment approaches, the chances to become parents are high. In a case if your fertility specialist will prescribe you an IVF treatment and our Team will provide you with the best possible options.

Ask today for a free skype-consultation if you have any other questions, related to female infertility!

female infertility

Egg Puncturing

In vitro fertilization (IVF) is a complex series of procedures used to treat infertility or genetic problems and assist with the conception of a child. It is the most effective form of assisted reproductive technology. The procedure can be done using your own eggs and your partner’s sperm. Or IVF may involve eggs, sperm or embryos from a known or anonymous donor. In some cases, a gestational carrier — a woman who has an embryo implanted in her uterus — might be used.

What is egg puncturing?

If you are using your own eggs during IVF, at the start of a cycle you will begin treatment with synthetic hormones to stimulate your ovaries to produce multiple eggs – rather than the single egg that normally develops each month. Multiple eggs are needed because some eggs will not fertilize or develop normally after fertilization.

Egg puncturing is also known as the oocyte pick-up, or OPU, egg retrieval is the process by which eggs or oocytes are removed from the ovary after stimulation during IVF. After you take fertility injections to grow multiple ovarian follicles, which house the eggs and once they reach the target size, ovulation is triggered and the egg are removed through the vagina during “mini-surgery”. Using an ultrasound doctors remove the eggs using a needle guide that is attached to ultrasound probe.

After being  removed, the eggs go to the laboratory to be prepared for freezing or for fertilization with sperm to create embryos. When the embryos are created, they will be transferred to Intended mother’s uterus or it will be used with surrogate mother.

Medications for stimulation. 

To stimulate your ovaries, you might receive an injectable medication containing a follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), a luteinizing hormone (LH) or a combination of both. These medications stimulate more than one egg to develop at a time. When the follicles are ready for egg retrieval — generally after eight to 14 days — you will take human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG) or other medications to help the eggs mature. Typically, you will need one to two weeks of ovarian stimulation before your eggs are ready for retrieval.

 About 34 to 36 hours after you receive the hCG shot, the egg retrieval will take place. It is normal to be nervous about the procedure, but most women go through it without much trouble or pain.

Is egg puncturing painful?

Before the egg puncturing, an anesthesiologist will give you some medication intravenously to help you feel relaxed and pain-free. Usually, a light sedative is used, which will make you “sleep” through the procedure. This is not the same as general anesthesia, which is used during surgery. Side effects and complications are less common. Overall egg retrieval is a safe procedure. Some fertility clinics prefer to use conscious sedation, which uses a sedative to help you relax and an anesthetic to numb and block pain.

Duration of operation


The egg puncturing process takes about 20 minutes. One benefit to conscious sedation is that recovery time is faster than general anesthetic, which allows you to head home and rest more quickly following the procedure. Another perk is that conscious sedation allows you to be awake and a part of the procedure without the anxiety and pain related to egg retrieval.

Many women who had experienced this process, found it fairly easy and without much pain after. Their advice is to be relaxed, because as they say there is no need to be nervous. After the process, you can have a rest for one or two hours and then leave the clinic.  Most likely you will go home and sleep the rest of the day. The next day of egg retrieval you will be able to do everything, you have been doing before it.

For you this is the only way to get a baby genetically related to parents and this process often gives good results and it definitely worth to try.

Euploidy and aneuploidy

Euploidy and aneuploidy

 

It is very important to receive good quality embryos during the artificial reproductive technologies, as it is the key to a successful treatment. But what does actually “good quality” mean? Is this about the microscopical evaluation of embryos by an embryologist? Let’s go to the fundamentals of this question.

 

During the fertilization process, two cells from both of parents will fuse, a spermatozoon of a father and an oocyte from a mother. Each of this cells stores a half of the usual number of chromosomes, and chromosomes are the carriers of the genetic material in all cells of the human body. But when the fertilization occurs, their genomes, each from 23 chromosomes (22 autosomes and one sex chromosome), will form the genome of a future embryo.

 

In normal conditions, under this process the embryo will be formed with 46 chromosomes: 44 autosomes, which are equal in both genders, and two sex chromosomes: XX for girls XY for boys. This state is called “euploidy” and it means the normal amount of chromosomes.

 

Sometimes, according to the individual situations in parents, their gametes can contain the wrong amount of chromosomes. The cause can be both age-related and associated with medical conditions such as inherited problems, harmful environment (ionizing radiation, some medications).

 

This will result in the formation of the embryo which will have the wrong number of chromosomes (less than 46 or more than 46). This called “aneuploidy” and it may lead to health problems in a child. Also, such embryos can be morphologically normal, so, during the microscopy, the embryologist will not see any abnormalities. The genetic status of embryos will not necessarily lead to some changes of their appearance.

 

How to estimate the genetic status of embryos?

If a doctor will decide that the parents are in the risk group, they will be proposed with the preimplantation genetic testing. It means that their embryos will be biopsied, a little part of them (5-10 cells) will be taken to the genetic laboratory and, after the investigation, the doctor will receive: which embryos are aneuploid and which are public, so could be recommended for a transfer. For the best chances for pregnancy, the most qualitative morphologically and, at the same time, the euploid embryo will be picked for a transfer.

 

Will the aneuploidy definitely lead to diseases in a child?

Well, with it these problems are not guaranteed. According to the Preimplantation Genetic Diagnosis International Society recommendations, there is a ‘priority’ list of transferring aneuploid embryos in case if there are no euploid options. This priority starts from specific aneuploidies which will less probably lead to the health problems, however, more detailed pregnancy investigation will be required to estimate all health risks with ultrasounds and biochemical screenings. Nonetheless, it will be estimated by your doctor and Pons Medical Research will find you appropriate specialists for consultation in case of such a need.

Folic acid for pregnant women

 Folic acid for pregnant women

Folic acid helps prevent defects of neural tube, which affect the brain (anencephaly) and spinal cord (spina bifida), also it affect the baby’s heart. Neutral tube defects can develop at the first 28 days after conception. Most of the time, the woman doesn’t even know that she is pregnant. More than half of all pregnancies in the world are unplanned, the World Health Organization recommends to take 400 mcg (0,4 mg) of folic acid daily, starting before conception (if you are planning the pregnancy – 1 month before is better) and until the first 12 weeks of pregnancy. If the woman has already a child with neural tube defects, she should ask her doctor for a larger dose. Taking folic acid may even lower your risk of preeclampsia. Also, our body needs this nutrient to make normal red blood cells and prevent types of anemia.

Where to get folic acid from?

The best way is to get the Folic Acid from the supplement with the right amount. Also, you can find it in green leafy vegetables, nuts, beans, citrus fruits and other.  But! Your organism absorbs the synthetic version of folic acid better than the natural one from food. So even if you eat a balanced diet, a supplement is very important and recommended in 100% cases.

Iron components

Iron helps blood in both the mother and the baby to carry oxygen. It is the important component of hemoglobin (a protein that helps to transfer the oxygen to tissues), myoglobin (a protein that helps supply oxygen to your muscles), collagen (a protein of bones, cartilages and other connective tissue) and many other proteins. Also, it helps maintain a healthy immune system. If there is a deficit of this nutrient the iron-deficiency anemia can take place. Preventing iron-deficiency anemia can cut your risk of preterm delivery, low birth weight, and infant mortality.

Why do you need more iron during a pregnancy?

The amount of blood in your body increases by 20-50%. You need extra iron for more hemoglobin. Your baby needs extra iron for growth, especially in the second and third trimesters. Also, many women start their pregnancy with insufficient stores of iron in their body.The pregnant woman needs 27 mg of iron daily. Red meat, poultry, seafood, liver, grains, legumes – add good content of animal iron and plant iron in our food.

How do you can get as much iron as possible from your diet?

Always cook in a cast iron pan. Include a source of Vitamin C (orange juice, strawberries, broccoli, onion, lemon) with every meal, especially with plant iron it will increase absorbing of Iron to 6 times more. Try not to eat iron contain products with coffee and tea, soy foods and dairy products (this food contains iron inhibitors, that can decrease the absorption of iron). Also, try to eat the iron contained products on empty stomach for increased absorption. Make a space during the day between eating food with iron and with calcium.

Should you take an iron supplement?

It depends on your diet (how much iron consist food you have), season (you get less iron at cold seasons) and your medical test of blood (can show if you have the iron deficit anemia). Also, it is always good to take Multivitamin Complex with daily need amount of iron. If your analysis of food and diet is not good (you may have the low amount of hemoglobin or erythrocytes, etc), in such situations your doctor can give you extra iron.

What side effects you are prone to?

You may have constipation; it is a common problem of many pregnant women, drinking prune juice or taking other natural laxatives can help you deal with this problem. But if you have over constipation or diarrhea, nausea or other stomach problems, please consult your doctor, he will help you. And don’t worry if your stools look darker, this is because you are taking iron in your food this is a harmless side effect.

In conclusion

Pons Medical Research is a leading provider of surrogacy programs in Ukraine with expertise in ICSI fertility treatment through ICSI IVF / PICSI and using ICSI Procedure, suggests for a good prenatal dietary and nutrition plan for its clients.

You should start to take prenatal vitamins before you begin trying to get pregnant, if possible. Folic acid is one of the main prenatal vitamins for your baby. Iron will help you to have a good health during the pregnancy. Don’t forget to take your vitamins daily and have a healthy good and balanced diet. Pons Medical Research wishes you a healthy pregnancy, full of great emotions and good useful vitamins!

How to prevent and protect women from Infectious diseases Toxoplasmosis during Pregnancy

How to prevent and protect women from Infectious diseases like Rubella and Toxoplasmosis during Pregnancy to avoid complications

Today, in most of countries, the majority of infectious diseases are eradicated as a result of vaccination and decades of efforts of the medical professionals. Such fatal infections like tetanus, rabbis and smallpox are very rare and people can feel themselves more protected these days. There are a large number of infectious diseases that can affect your pregnancy and your developing baby.

What is Rubella? What is Toxoplasmosis?

What effects can these infections have on your pregnancy and your developing baby? How to protect yourself and your family?

Pons Medical Research a leading provider of commercial surrogacy programs and IVF surrogacy in Ukraine has been advising surrogate mothers and intended parents on the best ways of managing pregnancy duration and limiting the risk of any infections.

All infectious diseases can be divided into 2 parts: infection diseases of childhood and general infectious diseases. But all of them can have effect if occurring during pregnancy. We are sure that many of you, when you were kids, got infected with chicken pox or rubella. Yes, of course we felt very bad, but now we know that we have Antigens to this disease in our blood (there is a special medical test to detect if this is so) and therefore we are not prone to suffer from this disease again and during pregnancy. Rubella anyone who is not vaccinated against rubella is at risk of getting this infection. For a pregnant woman, this risk is unjustified and even more if she has another life within her; this disease can have a harmful influence in her developing baby.

Rubella is a virus that causes the most severe damage when the mother is infected early in pregnancy, especially if it happens during the first 12 weeks (first trimester). The developing baby gets congenital rubella syndrome and the risk is very high that the mother might suffer a miscarriage or stillbirth. The most common birth defects from congenital rubella syndrome can include Deafness, Cataracts, Heart defects, Intellectual disabilities, Liver and spleen damage, Low birth weight, Skin rash at birth. Among others the less common birth defects are: Glaucoma, Brain damage, Thyroid and other hormone problems and inflammation of the lungs. So! In order to avoid congenital rubella syndrome during pregnancy the woman should get a vaccine before the pregnancy occurs!
Congenital toxoplasmosis

Do you like cats?

You should forget about having any kind of contact with street cats during your pregnancy. Only healthy house-hold cats can be around you. This lovely creature is the most common source of toxoplasmic infection. This disease is caused by Toxoplasma gondii.

If you become infected for the first time just before or during your pregnancy, you can transmit the infection to your baby, even if you don’t have signs and symptoms yourself. Your baby is most at risk of contracting toxoplasmosis at any time during the whole pregnancy. During the first trimester stillbirth or miscarriage can occur and in later periods, seizures, enlarged liver and spleen, yellowing of the skin and whites of the eyes (jaundice) and severe eye infections may be present in the infected baby.

How to check if I am ill?

You need to make a special blood test before and during the pregnancy.
How to protect yourself? Take vaccines, medical tests, follow rules of personal hygiene, and keep healthy.
What are the risk factors? All of them are connected with immunodeficiency.
-HIV/AIDS
-Undergoing chemotherapy
-You take steroids or other immunosuppressant drugs
-You are allergic.

How I can prevent myself against toxoplasmosis during the pregnancy?

-Wear gloves when you are working outdoors. Always wash your hands with antibacterial soap when you come home.
-Don’t eat raw or under-cooked meat.
-Wash kitchen utensils thoroughly.
-Wash all fruits and vegetables thoroughly.
-Don’t drink unpasteurized milk.
-Control that your cats stay healthy.
-Ask someone else to clean your cat’s litter box.
-Keep your house clean.
-And always remember you ask your doctor and fertility specialist if you have any questions.
In conclusion!

Prevention from infectious diseases and optimal nutritional care during IVF Surrogacy programs are the key points and our unique selling proposition at Pons Medical Research. All our Commercial Surrogacy programs are managed by our professionals, expert doctors and Fertility Specialist. Pons Medical Research wishes you a perfect pregnancy!

What are the risks of preeclampsia & eclampsia for pregnant women?

What are the risks of preeclampsia & eclampsia for pregnant women?

Preeclampsia and eclampsia continue to be major contributors to maternal mortality and morbidity. Lack of appreciation for the multi‐organ involvement of preeclampsia, combined with overly rigid criteria for diagnosis, may hinder early diagnosis.

Pons Medical Research

Pons Medical Research is a leading surrogacy provider in Ukraine with one of the most economical Surrogate Mother Cost and meeting all the Surrogacy Process Step By Step. We invite all the intended parents to feel free to contact us if you have any infectious disease that is holding your pregnancy.

Pregnant and postpartum women need to know important warning signs and symptoms of preeclampsia. Prompt diagnosis of preeclampsia and appropriate management will improve the quality of care for women.
Preeclampsia is a serious complication during pregnancy, characterized by increased pressure and changes in the functioning of certain organs, for example, kidneys and liver. This condition develops in 5-8% of cases. In the absence of treatment, preeclampsia can turn into eclampsia, a condition that causes seizures and even death. Learn to listen yourself, in time to draw the doctor’s attention to the changes that have appeared in your condition.

1. Increased blood pressure. This can be overlooked on your own, if you do not have a device at home. But at every appointment the doctor will measure blood pressure. Better to buy a tonometer for yourself. So you can monitor your pressure more carefully.

2. A protein in the urine is not an obligatory, but a frequent companion of pre-eclampsia. You can notice its presence only when you pass the analysis. Therefore, do not neglect such a simple study as a general urine test.

3. Rare urination suggests that the kidneys do not function properly. If this happens, immediately consult a doctor, it can be extremely dangerous.

4. Warning! Swelling of the face and hands is a serious cause for concern.

5. Violent headache, especially long-lasting headache, may indicate preeclampsia. Studies show that among women with a secondary headache, about 40% experience preeclampsia.

6. Nausea or vomiting in 2/3 trimesters, when the pregnancy toxaemia has already receded, it is an alarming sign. Tell your fertility specialist about it. Studies show that persistent vomiting and nausea increase the likelihood of pre-eclampsia.

7. A sudden weight gain due to fluid retention in the body (weight gain of more than a kilogram per week) is an unfavorable sign. That is why during the period of observation of the pregnant woman weight is one of the most important indicators.

8. Problems with vision, 20-50% of patients with preeclampsia are suffering from problems with eye-vision (due to the compartment of the optic nerve). The most common patients complaints are blurred vision, flashes of light, spots in front of the eyes, sensitivity to light.

9. Specified reflexes are difficult to notice on their own. Rather, it will be noticed by the doctor at the examination. Exacerbation of reflexes can signal a danger of seizures.

10. Shortness of breath on late pregnancy can be considered the norm, since all organs are under pressure due to a growing baby. However, shortness of breath is also one of the symptoms of pre-eclampsia and can appear due to the accumulation of fluid in the lungs. This condition can also cause a sense of anxiety associated with low levels of oxygen in the body.

11. Pain in the upper right side of the abdomen, you can associate this discomfort with the increase of the abdomens size, the growth of the baby or the baby’s tremors. But it can also indicate problems with the liver. Pain in the upper right side of the abdomen can signal liver edema caused by severe pre-eclampsia.

PonsMedicalResearch is a leading surrogacy provider in Ukraine with one of the most economical Surrogate Mother Cost and meeting all the Surrogacy Process Step By Step. We invite all the intended parents to feel free to contact us if you have any infectious disease that is holding your pregnancy. Pons Medical Research wishes you a healthy pregnancy, full of great emotions and good health!

The Uterus: ageing, abnormalities and new biological insights

The Uterus: ageing, abnormalities and new biological insights

The Uterus is the main organ of the reproductive system of the woman. In this article, we will learn about the uterus, its sizes, abnormalities and changes along the life.

Pons Medical Research is a leading surrogacy provider in Ukraine.

We recommend informing your fertility specialist about any symptoms of uterus abnormality as soon as possible to have a healthy pregnancy. Pons Medical Research offers Guaranteed Pregnancy under our Guaranteed Surrogacy Program. Contact us for a free consultation on your infertility issues.

 

The uterus is a smooth-muscular hollow organ located in a woman’s pelvic area. In shape, the uterus resembles a pear and is mainly intended for bearing a fertilized egg during pregnancy. The weight of the uterus of a nulliparous woman is about 50 g (for nulliparous – from 30 to 50 g, for those giving birth – from 80 to 100 g), the length is 7 to 8 cm, and the largest width is about 5 cm. Owing to the elastic walls, the uterus can grow to 32 cm in height and 20 cm in width, sustaining a fruit weighing up to 5 kg. During the menopause the size of the uterus decreases, atrophy of its epithelium occurs, sclerotic changes in blood vessels.

The uterus is located in the cavity of the small pelvis between the bladder and rectum. Normally it is tilted anteriorly, on both sides, it is supported by special ligaments, which do not allow it to descend and, at the same time, provide the necessary minimum of movement. Due to these ligaments, the uterus is able to react to changes in neighboring organs (for example, bladder overflow) and to take an optimal position for itself: the uterus can move back when the bladder is filled, forward with a rectum overflow, rise up during pregnancy.

The attachment of the ligaments is very complicated, and it is its nature that is the reason why it is not recommended for a pregnant woman to raise her hands high: this position of the hands leads to a strain of the ligament of the uterus, to the tension of the uterus itself and its displacement. This, in turn, can cause unnecessary displacement of the fetus during late pregnancy.

The size of the uterus is not the same in all women, but depends on:

-age;
-growth;
-weight;
-healthiness;
-the number of children;
-from the presence in the anamnesis of frozen pregnancies, miscarriages or abortions;
-postoperative diseases and operations;

But nevertheless, there are frames that determine the norm size of a healthy uterus:

-when performing ultrasound, determine;
-longitudinal dimension – (= length;
-transverse dimension – (= width;
-anteroposterior size – (= thickness.

The size of the uterus changes during the woman’s life:
-with the onset of puberty;
-in the time of pregnancy;
-and in the period of postmenopause;

The newborn female uterus is about four centimeters long. By the end of the year, an involution of the organ will take place, it will decrease approximately twice and it will be the same up to 7 years of age. From the seven years-old age until the end of the period of puberty, it gradually increases and acquires normal parameters.

What is considered as normal?

For a mature woman who has not given birth, the size of the uterus is normal, if the length, including the cervix is 7-7.9 cm, the width is 3 to 3.9 cm, the anteroposterior dimension is in the range of 2 to 4.5 cm and, finally, the thickness of the uterus – from 2 to 4 cm. During the gestation period, the uterus grows naturally and can reach 32 cm in length and up to 20 cm in width;
In the postpartum period, the uterus begins to shrink at a rapid pace and returns to the previous dimensions.

The size of the uterus increases due to various pathological conditions:

-uterine myoma;
-adenomyosis.
With an increase in the size of the uterus, a woman may be disturbed of such symptoms:
-belly in the lower abdomen;
-urinary incontinence;
-violations of the menstrual cycle, increased blood loss during critical days;
-increase in body weight.
If the ultrasound reveals a decrease in the size of the uterus, it is said that uterine hypoplasia starts. There are several degrees:
-hypoplasia of the uterus;
-infantilism;
-aplasia of the uterus.
Depending on the severity of uterine hyperplasia, the following symptoms are possible:
-late onset of menstruation;
-the delay of puberty;
-reducing the libido;
-irregular cycle or absence of menstruation;
-problems with the onset and pregnancy.

Carrying out hormone replacement therapy can help increase the size of the uterus, which increases the likelihood of successful pregnancy. The only exception is aplasia of the uterus, pregnancy in this situation is possible only as a result of IVF with the transfer of the embryo to the surrogate mother.

Pons Medical Research wishes you a healthy pregnancy, full of great emotions and good health!

PGD – All Pros And Cons

 

Many intended parents are interested in PGD after years of efforts for building a family. The question that bothers them is, does the Preimplantation Genetic Diagnosis affect the probability of pregnancy? We will try to help and will make a list of all pros and cons.

What is PGD?
The main goal of PGD is to help the parent choose the best embryo without any pathology.  It’s very important to transfer healthy embryos for a successful pregnancy and a good future for the baby. As you see, the advantage of PGD is to reduce the risk of aborted pregnancy.

So, we at Pons Medical Research recommend PGD as a mean to help carrying the child until its birth and to have it healthy, without any genetic disease. Our fertility specialist also recommends to do the PGD to the couples that were transferred the best embryos but the pregnancy didn’t occur.

Recent researches showed that 25-30% of transferring cases can results in pregnancy, thanks to the fact that they are genetically healthy. It proves that even if your embryos don’t have good quality, if the PGD showed good results the pregnancy can be successful.

 

On what day is it better perform the biopsy of embryo?

Many clinics made the research on a third day, but you should know that it also gives a big risk of stopping the development of the embryos. Moreover, on the third day the embryo have a high level of mosaicism (cells are genetically different). It can lead to false results. We at Pons Medical Research recommend doing the research on 5th day, there is less risk and more material.

Let’s talk about the risk of PGD

The examination is invasive, that is why there is a risk for the embryo. It can be damaged during the biopsy (3 days embryo);

A biological mistake can happen if the embryo has a high level of mosaicism; You have to verify the fertility specialist and the equipment where the examination will be performed. That is why we at Pons Medical Research help people to make the right choice. We recommend only those fertility specialist and laboratories that we trust.

To whom we recommend to make the PGD research:

  • Couples that have a high level of risk of genetic disease (family cases of genetic diseases).
  • Women older than 35 years. With age the quantity of genetically anomalous embryos increases;
  • Couples where the partner is older than 45 years;
  • If a partner has heavy disorders of spermatogenesis;
  • Women that couldn’t carry a child, especially during early pregnancy period;
  • Couples that have undergone several unsuccessful IVF attempts.
  • Couples that will have a child through a surrogacy program

So, take the opportunity and make your dream closer to come true. Pons Medical Research team sincerely wishes you not to give up. Remember that there is hope even in the worst situations.

PGS – Reducing The Risk Of Miscarriage

PGS – Reducing The Risk Of Miscarriage

As you know infertility has different reasonable types. One of them is of a genetic basis. Actually only a third parts of all embryos settle down in uterus and less percentage can give a birth of healthy child. Let’s figure out why it is like this.

PGS

What is PGS?

Preimplantation Genetic Screening, the proper term for testing for overall chromosomal normalcy in embryos.

Preimplantation genetic screening helps to find different genetic anomalies of the embryo before their transfer into the uterus. It increases the possibility of a patient to have a successful embryo implantation and effective IVF.

The doctor advices to use PGS to those patients that are in a risk group (women that can’t carry an embryo during early gestation, women older than 35 years, women that had unsuccessful attempts to become pregnant with the help of ART and surrogacy).

 

Why PGS?

PGS is mainly performed for screening of chromosomes. Through PGS, the normalcies of chromosomes are checked. Human beings have 46 chromosomes but extra or less number of chromosomes may lead serious problems like down syndrome.  Chromosomal abnormalities are also responsible for about 70% of miscarriages in early pregnancy. Failure of implantation of IVF embryos also may caused due to Chromosomal abnormalities.

Percentage of chromosomal abnormalities increases due to increase in woman’s age.  Chromosomes in eggs from older women have a significantly increased rate of abnormalities. Hence, before implantation of embryos to the uterus, PGS is an important step.

 

How PGS works?

For PGS procedure of three day embryos the doctor takes one blastomere in order to find a genetic disease. He goes to special laboratory and there he counts  the quantity of the chromosomes. The results of the research are ready on the fifth day, right at the moment of embryo transfer. If it’s ok, the doctor finds 23 pairs of chromosomes: 22 regular and 1 pair of sex chromosomes.

The aim of the method is to find healthy and good embryos. It will increase the possibility of successful transfer, pregnancy and carrying a baby during pregnancy. It is believed that the risk of anomaly embryos increase with the age of the women and doesn’t depends on the way of conception.

 

What PGS gives us?

  • Increasing of success of ART with first try at the young patients up to 84%
  • Reducing of the risk of miscarriage at first trimester up to 6-9%
  • Guaranteeing the birth of healthy child without any genetic pathology.

 

Pons Medical Researcher can help you with any question that you may want to ask. All our programs offer the possibility of performing the Pre-implantation Genetic Screening

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